ADVANCED INTERNAL RATINGs-BASED APPROACH
Advanced Internal Ratings-Based (AIRB) Approach, which is subject to supervisory approval where a bank may use its internal developed credit risk measurement systems to calculate the capital requirements for credit risk.
ADVANCED MEASUREMENT APPROACH
The Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) allows a bank to calculate its regulatory capital charge (using internal models) based on internal risk variables and profiles. This is the only risk-sensitive approach for operational risk allowed in Basel II.
ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT
Assets managed by Nedbank Group, which are beneficially owned by clients and are therefore not reported on the consolidated balance sheet. Advances that have either been fully or partially utilised by a borrower.
Automated Teller machine
Automated teller machine (ATM) is a cash machine or free-standing device dispensing cash, which may also provide other information or services to clients who have a card and a personal identification number, password or other personal identification.
This asset class covers all exposures to counterparties treated as banks.
BASEL CAPITAL ACCORD
The new Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) of the Bank for International Settlements is an improved capital adequacy framework accomplished by closely aligning banks’ capital requirements with improved modern risk management practices and sophisticated risk assessment capabilities. It further ensures the risk sensitivity of the minimum capital requirements by including supervisory reviews and market discipline through enhanced disclosure.
BASEL ASSET CLASSES (AS CATEGORISED IN the ba 200 return)
Corporate exposures are defined as a debt obligation of a corporation, partnership or proprietorship. Banks are permitted to distinguish separately exposures to small and medium-sized enterprises.Specialised lending high-volatility commercial real estate
High-volatility commercial real estate (HVCRE) lending is the financing of commercial real estate that exhibits higher loss rate volatility compared with other types of Specialised Lending.Specialised lending income-producing real estate
Income-producing real estate (IPRE) refers to a method of providing funding to real estate (such as, office buildings to let, retail space, multifamily residential buildings, industrial or warehouse space, and hotels) where the prospects for repayment and recovery on the exposure depend primarily on the cashflows generated by the asset. The primary source of these cashflows would generally be lease or rental payments or the sale of the asset.Specialised lending object finance
Object finance (OF) refers to a method of funding the acquisition of physical assets (eg ships, aircraft, satellites, rolling stock, and fleets) where the repayment of the exposure is dependent on the cashflows generated by the specific assets that have been financed and pledged.Specialised lending commodities finance
Commodities finance (CF) refers to structured short-term lending to finance reserves, inventories, or receivables of exchange-traded commodities (eg crude oil, metals or crops), where the exposure will be repaid from the proceeds of the sale of the commodity.Specialised lending project finance
Project finance (PF) is a method of funding in which the lender looks primarily to the revenues generated by a single project, both as the source of repayment and as security for the exposure. This type of financing is usually for large, complex and expensive installations, for example power plants, chemical-processing plants, mines, etc.Small and medium enterprises corporate
This asset class covers all exposures to small and medium enterprises (SME) that are classified as corporate, based on criteria prescribed by the Regulator.Purchased receivables corporate
This asset class covers all receivables classified as corporate exposures which are purchased for inclusion in asset-backed securitisation structures, but banks may also use this approach, with the approval of national supervisors, for appropriate on-balance-sheet exposures that share the same features.PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES
This asset class covers all exposures to enterprises that are wholly or majority owned by the central government, eg Eskom and Transnet.LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND MUNICIPALITIES
This asset class covers all exposures to metropolitan councils, district councils and municipalities.Sovereign (including central government and central bank)
This asset class covers all exposures to counterparties treated as central government.SECURITIES FIRMS
This asset class covers all exposures to enterprises regulated by a recognised authority, and which trades in securities.RETAIL EXPOSURES
Retail mortgages (including home equity line of credit)
This asset class covers all mortgage advances or credit lines to individuals, which are fully secured by a mortgage over residential property.Retail revolving credit
Exposures to individuals that is revolving unsecured, and committed (both contractually and in practice). In this context, revolving exposures are defined as those where clients’ outstanding balances are permitted to fluctuate based on their decisions to borrow and repay up to a limit established by the bank.RETAIL OTHER
This asset class covers all non-revolving exposures (excluding mortgage advances) to individuals.Small and medium enterprises retail
This asset class covers all exposures to small and medium enterprises (SME) that are classified as retail, based on criteria prescribed by the Regulator.Purchased receivables – retail
This asset class covers all receivables classified as retail exposures, which are purchased for inclusion in asset-backed securitisation structures, but banks may also use this approach, with the approval of national supervisors, for appropriate on-balance-sheet exposures that share the same features.
Black economic empowerment transaction
Nedbank Group’s black economic empowerment (BEE) transaction, which focused primarily on the issuing of shares to BEE partners for the purposes of broad-based black economic empowerment (B-BBEE), equating to approximately 9,3% (43 618 748 shares) of total share capital and equating to black ownership of 11,5% of the value of Nedbank Group’s South African businesses in 2005. Nedbank Namibia’s BEE transaction, which focused primarily on the issuing of shares to BEE partners and affinity groups for the purposes of BEE in Namibia, equating to approximately 0,14% (665 680 shares) of total share capital of Nedbank Group Limited and equating to black ownership of 11,13% of the value of NedNamibia Holdings Limited, Nedbank Group’s Namibian business in 2006.Borrowing group
A group of clients and their underlying loans and advances according to the per person definition of the ‘Regulations Related to Banks’.Capital adequacy ratio
The capital adequacy of SA banks is measured in terms of the SA Banks Act requirements. The ratio is calculated by dividing the primary (Tier 1), secondary (Tier 2) and tertiary (Tier 3) capital by the risk-weighted assets.Group capital adequacy ratio
Group capital adequacy is the ratio of group net qualifying capital and reserve funds to total group risk-weighted assets as calculated per the SA Banks Act requirements.Primary (tier 1) capital
Primary capital consists of issued ordinary share capital and perpetual preference share capital, qualifying perpetual callable hybrid capital, retained earnings and reserves, less regulatory deductions.Core tier 1 capital
Core Tier 1 capital is primary capital less any amount on non-core Tier 1 capital, being perpetual preference share capital and qualifying perpetual callable hybrid capital.Secondary (tier 2) capital
Secondary capital is made up of subordinated dated debt and certain types of perpetual callable debt, the excess amount in respect of eligible provisions, 50% of any revaluation surplus less regulatory deductions.Tertiary (tier 3) capital
Tertiary capital consists of capital obtained by way of unsecured subordinated loans, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.
Activities that result in changes to the capital structure of the group.Investment activities
Activities relating to the acquisition, holding and disposal of property and equipment and long-term investments.Operating activities
Activities that are not financing or investing activities and arise from the operations conducted by the group.
Credit loss ratio
Credit loss ratio is the impairments charge as a percentage of average advances.Defaulted advance
Any advance or group of advances that has triggered relevant definition of default criteria for that portfolio that is in line with the amended Banks Act regulations relating to banks. For retail portfolios it is transaction-centric and therefore a default would be specific to an account (specific advance). For wholesale portfolios it is client- or borrower-centric, meaning that in the event of any transaction within a borrowing group defaulting, then all transactions within the borrowing group would be defaulted.Definition of default
At a minimum, a default is deemed to have occurred where a material obligation is overdue for more than 90 days or an obligor exceeds an advised limit for more than 90 days.
DEFERRED TAXATION ASSETS
Deferred taxation assets are the amounts of income taxation recoverable in future periods in respect of:
- deductible temporary differences arising due to differences between the taxation and accounting treatment of transactions; and
- the carry forward of unused taxation losses.
DEFERRED TAXATION LIABILITIES
Deferred taxation liabilities are the amounts of income taxation payable in future periods due to differences between the taxation and accounting treatment of transactions.
Direct taxation includes normal taxation on income, capital gains taxation (CGT) and secondary taxation on companies (STC).
Headline earnings per share divided by the dividend/distribution declared per share.
DIVIDEND/DISTRIBUTION DECLARED PER SHARE
Dividend/Distribution declared per share is the actual interim dividend paid/capitalisation award issued and the final dividend declared/capitalisation award declared for the period under consideration, expressed in cents.
DIVIDEND/DISTRIBUTION PAID/CAPITALISED PER SHARE
Dividend/Distribution paid/capitalised per share is the actual final dividend paid/capitalisation award issued for the prior year and the interim dividend paid/capitalisation award issued for the year under consideration, expressed in cents.
Dividend/Capitalisation award declared per ordinary share as a percentage of the closing share price of ordinary shares.
DOWNTURN EXPECTED LOSS
A stress-tested value for expected loss under downturn economic conditions that could have unfavourable effects on a bank’s credit exposures.
The Codes of Good Practice as promulgated on 9 February 2007 under section 9(1) of the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, 2003 (53 of 2003), establishes the rules, targets and stipulations for the measurement of broad-based black economic empowerment (B-BBEE) within South Africa based on three scorecard classifications for organisations: emerging microenterprise (EME), qualifying small enterprise (QSE), or generic enterprise. Nedbank is scored as a generic enterprise under the published codes.
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings basis
Income attributable to equity holders for the period divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue (net of shares held by group entities) during the period.Headline earnings basis
Headline earnings divided by the weighted average number of shares in issue (net of shares held by group entities) during the period.Fully diluted basis
The relevant earnings figure is adjusted for the assumed adjustments to income that would have been earned on the issue of shares issued from dilutive instruments. The resultant earnings are divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares and other dilutive instruments (ie potential ordinary shares) outstanding at the period-end, assuming they had been in issue for the period.
Headline earnings per share as a percentage of the closing price of ordinary shares.
Economic capital (ecap) is the quantification of risk and an internal assessment of the amount of capital required to protect the group against economic losses with a desired level of confidence (solvency standard or default probability) over a one-year time horizon. In other words, it is the magnitude of economic losses the group could withstand while still remaining solvent.
ECONOMIC PROFIT OR LOSS
Headline earnings after adjusting for cost of capital.
EFFECTIVE TAXATION RATE
The taxation charge in the income statement, excluding taxation relating to non-trading and capital items, as a percentage of profit before taxation.
EFFICIENCY RATIO (COST-TO-INCOME RATIO)
Total expenses as a percentage of income from normal operations
(net interest income plus non-interest revenue).
Exposure at default (EAD) is an estimation of the extent to which a bank may be exposed to a counterparty in the event of, and at the time of, that counterparty’s default.Expected loss
Expected loss (EL) is the expected value of portfolio losses due to default over a specified time horizon.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSLATION GAINS/LOSSES
The results and assets/liabilities of all foreign entities controlled by the group that have a rand-functional currency are translated at the closing exchange rate and the differences arising are recognised in the income statement as foreign exchange translation gains/losses.
Headline earnings is not a measure of maintainable earnings. For purposes of the definition and calculation, the guidance given on headline earnings, as issued by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants in circular 07/02 of December 2002, has been used. Headline earnings consist of the earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders excluding non-trading and capital items.
International financial reporting standards
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) of the IASB. Nedbank Group’s consolidated financial results are prepared in accordance with IFRS.
IMPAIRMENTS CHARGE TO AVERAGE ADVANCES
Impairments charge on loans and advances for the year divided by average advances. Also known as the credit loss ratio or impairment ratio.
IMPAIRMENT OF LOANS AND ADVANCES
Impairment of loans and advances arises where there is objective evidence that the group will not be able to collect an amount due.
The impairment is the difference between the carrying amount and the estimated recoverable amount.
Value-added taxation (VAT) and other taxes, levies and duties paid to government, excluding direct taxation.
The difference between the rate of growth in total income from normal operations and the rate of total expense growth.
Johannesburg Interbank agreement rate
The Johannesburg Interbank Agreement Rate (JIBAR) is the rate that SA banks charge each other for wholesale money.
KING II (THE CODE)
The King Report on Corporate Governance 2002, which sets out principles of good corporate governance for SA companies and organisations.
The revised King Code and Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa 2009, which sets out revised principles of good corporate governance for SA companies.
London interbank offered rate
London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) is the rate that banks participating in the London money market offer each other for short-term deposits.
The group’s closing share price multiplied by the number of shares in issue including shares held by group entities.
NET ASSET VALUE PER SHARE
Total equity attributable to equity holders of the parent divided by the number of shares in issue, excluding shares held by group entities.
NET INTEREST INCOME TO AVERAGE INTEREST-EARNING ASSETS (NET INTEREST MARGIN)
Net interest income expressed as a percentage of average net interest-earning banking assets. Net interest-earning banking assets are used, as these closely resemble the quantum of assets earning income that is included in net margin.
NON-INTEREST REVENUE TO TOTAL EXPENSES
Non-interest revenue as a percentage of total expenses from normal operations.
NON-INTEREST REVENUE TO TOTAL INCOME
Non-interest revenue as a percentage of total income from normal operations.
NON-TRADING AND CAPITAL ITEMS
These comprise the following:
- surpluses and losses on disposal of long-term investments, subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates;
- impairment of goodwill arising on acquisition of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates;
- surpluses and losses on the sale or termination of an operation;
- capital cost of fundamental reorganisation or restructuring having a material effect on the nature and focus of the operations of the reporting entities;
- impairment of investments, property and equipment, computer software and capitalised development costs; and
- other items of a capital nature.
Assets managed on behalf of third parties on a fully discretionary basis.
The closing price of ordinary shares divided by headline earnings (for the previous 12 months) per share.
PROPERTIES IN POSSESSION
Properties in possession (PIPS) acquired through payment defaults on loans secured by properties.
RETURN ON ORDINARY SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Return on ordinary shareholders’ equity (ROE) is headline earnings expressed as a percentage of average equity attributable to equity holders of the parent.
RETURN ON ORDINARY SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY EXCLUDING GOODWILL
Return on ordinary shareholders’ equity (ROE) excluding goodwill is headline earnings expressed as a percentage of average equity attributable to equity holders of the parent less goodwill.
RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS
Return on total assets (ROA) is headline earnings expressed as a percentage of average total assets.
Risk-weighted assets (RWA) are determined by applying risk weights to balance sheet assets and off-balance-sheet financial instruments according to the relative credit risk of the counterparty. The risk weighting for each balance sheet asset and off-balance-sheet financial instrument is regulated by the SA Banks Act or by regulations in the respective countries of the other banking licences.
South African Reserve Bank REGULATIONS RELATED TO BANKS AND THE BA RETURNS*
The regulations relating to banks were amended with effect from 01/01/2008, based on the revised Basel Capital Accord (Basel II). The new Basel Capital Accord of the Bank of International Settlements is an improved capital adequacy framework accomplished by closely aligning banks’ capital requirements with improved modern risk management practices and sophisticated risk assessment capabilities.
It further ensures the risk sensitivity of the minimum capital requirements by including supervisory reviews and market discipline through enhanced disclosure.
* The new Banks Act regulatory returns.
A distinguishable component of the group, based on the market on which each business area focuses, which is subject to risks and returns that are different from those of other operating segments.Geographical segment
A distinguishable component of the group that is engaged in providing services within a particular economic environment and is subject to risks and returns that are different from those of components operating in other economic environments.Securitisation exposures
This asset class covers all exposures to tradable, interest-bearing commercial paper, which is secured by an underlying asset, eg mortgage loans.
Transfers of a company’s equity instruments by its shareholders to parties that have supplied goods or services to the company (including employees).
SHARES HELD BY GROUP ENTITIES (TREASURY SHARES)
Ordinary shares in Nedbank Group Limited acquired/held by group companies, including ordinary shares held in share trusts as part of the black economic empowerment transaction.
A self-service terminal (SST) is similar to an ATM, but is designed for non-cash transactions.
THE STANDARDISED APPROACH
The standardised approach (TSA) is an approach to calculate regulatory credit risk requirements that sets out specific risk weights specified by the regulator in lieu of the AIRB Approach.
TANGIBLE NET ASSET VALUE PER SHARE
Total equity attributable to equity holders of the parent less goodwill, computer software and capitalised development costs, divided by the number of shares in issue, excluding shares held by group entities.
The total monetary value of all collateral held by a bank as security for an advance(s), limited to exposure.
TOTAL CREDIT EXTENDED
The total of all advances extended by a bank, including unutilised facilities and other off-balance-sheet exposures.
TOTAL EQUITY ATTRIBUTABLE TO EQUITY HOLDERS OF THE PARENT
Ordinary share capital, share premium and reserves.
WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF SHARES
The number of shares in issue increased by shares issued during the period, weighted on a time basis for the period during which they participated in the income of the group, less shares held by group entities, weighted on a time basis for the period during which the entities held these shares.
These definitions should be read in conjunction with the group’s accounting policies, which also clarify certain terms used.